There are not many instruments with a reentrant tuning in this modern world. Probably because of the influence of the modern guitar where all the strings are tuned ascendant and all other instruments follow. However, many centuries ago, instruments with reentrant tuning were extremely popular, and they were used in many songs from where we still have notation.
One such instrument is the Cuatro, a four-stringed instrument that originated in Venezuela. What makes the Cuatro unique is its reentrant tuning, which sets it apart from other stringed instruments like guitars, violins, and basses that tune their highest notes on the last bottom string.
For a fortuitous reason, the Cuatro shares this reentrant tuning with “ancient” instruments like the Baroque Guitar, Vihuela, Charango, and Sitar. The amusing fact behind this quirk is that the last string of the cuatro which produces B note one octave lower was originally supposed to produce the same sound of a B note but on a higher octave.
In Venezuela, where cuatros were first made from animal intestines due to a lack of high-quality materials for making strings. As a result, when musicians tried tuning their cuatros’ last string to hit a higher octave B note sound, it would often break under tension. Thus arose an economic solution – instead of producing higher sounds; they lowered an octave so that it could produce a lower octave B-note.
This simple but practical solution made the Cuatro one of the few instruments in the world with reentrant tuning. It has become an iconic instrument in Venezuelan music and has gained popularity worldwide through performances by master players like Edward Ramirez who blend traditional styles with contemporary innovation.
In conclusion, while its reentrant tuning may be considered unique today compared to modern-day musical instruments; history reminds us that it was common centuries ago. The Cuatro shares this curious characteristic with other interesting instruments, and it continues to be a celebrated instrument for its distinct sound and rich history.